What if, as a human being, she doesn't want to roll over, as was expected in Shakespeare's day? I actually think he's championing the woman's rights. The other, less stomach-churning interpretation is that this is a curiously misunderstood love story.
Love concepts in Shakespeare`s - The Taming of the Shrew
Lucy Bailey , who is directing the new RSC show, believes their attraction is instant, and what unfolds is "all foreplay to one event, which is to get these two people into bed". For this to work, Bailey says, Petruchio must never appear to be superior to Kate. It becomes punitive, and you start to think, 'This is dead and ghastly. The trouble with the love-at-first-sight version is that it's hard to understand why Petruchio should mistreat Kate so.
Gregory Doran , who directed the play for the RSC in , suggests that Petruchio doesn't know how to handle their relationship because he is as much of an outcast as Katherine. He points out that both characters are frequently described as mad: "Madness is a way that society can label you. That's what Kate and Petruchio are struggling against. Director David Farr, whose staging shifted the setting to s America, believes Shakespeare offers a key to Petruchio's mental imbalance by telling us his father has recently died. He sees Petruchio as a man whose pride is piqued by encountering a woman capable of outwitting him.
He's constantly having to improvise. Nichola McAuliffe , who has played Katherine twice, believes we misread Petruchio's actions because we don't understand his references to falconry. When Petruchio says he will deny Katherine sleep and food, he is describing the way birds of prey are socialised, with owner and animal enduring the same deprivations. There remains a difficulty in these "torture" scenes: Katherine barely speaks, whereas Petruchio never shuts up.
The Taming of the Shrew: 'This is not a woman being crushed' | Stage | The Guardian
According to Lisa Dillon, playing Katherine in Bailey's production, this contrasts with Katherine's long final speech in which she advises wives to be gentle to their husbands , showing how much she has changed. Petruchio gives her the power of speech and language: he gives her freedom to speak. He wrings him by the ears. Is't not Hortensio?
Nay then you jest, and now I well perceive You have but jested with me all this while: I prithee, sister Kate, untie my hands. Strikes her. Was it not to refresh the mind of man After his studies or his usual pain? Then give me leave to read philosophy, And while I pause, serve in your harmony. BIANCA Why, gentlemen, you do me double wrong, To strive for that which resteth in my choice: I am no breeching scholar in the schools; I'll not be tied to hours nor 'pointed times, But learn my lessons as I please myself.
And, to cut off all strife, here sit we down: Take you your instrument, play you the whiles; His lecture will be done ere you have tuned. O fie! That Katharina and Petruchio should be married, And yet we hear not of our son-in-law. What will be said? What says Lucentio to this shame of ours? I told you, I, he was a frantic fool, Hiding his bitter jests in blunt behavior: And, to be noted for a merry man, He'll woo a thousand, 'point the day of marriage, Make feasts, invite friends, and proclaim the banns; Yet never means to wed where he hath woo'd.
Now must the world point at poor Katharina, And say, 'Lo, there is mad Petruchio's wife, If it would please him come and marry her! Upon my life, Petruchio means but well, Whatever fortune stays him from his word: Though he be blunt, I know him passing wise; Though he be merry, yet withal he's honest. Was ever man so beaten? I am sent before to make a fire, and they are coming after to warm them. Now, were not I a little pot and soon hot, my very lips might freeze to my teeth, my tongue to the roof of my mouth, my heart in my belly, ere I should come by a fire to thaw me: but I, with blowing the fire, shall warm myself; for, considering the weather, a taller man than I will take cold.
Holla, ho! I tell you, sir, she bears me fair in hand. Beggars, that come unto my father's door, Upon entreaty have a present aims; If not, elsewhere they meet with charity: But I, who never knew how to entreat, Nor never needed that I should entreat, Am starved for meat, giddy for lack of sleep, With oath kept waking and with brawling fed: And that which spites me more than all these wants, He does it under name of perfect love; As who should say, if I should sleep or eat, 'Twere deadly sickness or else present death.
I prithee go and get me some repast; I care not what, so it be wholesome food. How say you to a fat tripe finely broil'd? What say you to a piece of beef and mustard? In , Leo Kirschbaum made a similar argument. In an article listing over twenty examples of bad quartos, Kirschbaum did not include A Shrew , which he felt was too different from The Shrew to come under the bad quarto banner; "despite protestations to the contrary, The Taming of a Shrew does not stand in relation to The Shrew as The True Tragedie , for example, stands in relation to 3 Henry VI.
Alexander's theory continued to be challenged as the years went on. In , R. Houk developed what came to be dubbed the Ur-Shrew theory; both A Shrew and The Shrew were based upon a third play, now lost. Duthie refined Houk's suggestion by arguing A Shrew was a memorial reconstruction of Ur-Shrew , a now lost early draft of The Shrew ; " A Shrew is substantially a memorially constructed text and is dependent upon an early Shrew play, now lost.
The Shrew is a reworking of this lost play. Duthie argues this other version was a Shakespearean early draft of The Shrew ; A Shrew constitutes a reported text of a now lost early draft. Alexander returned to the debate in , re-presenting his bad quarto theory. In particular, he concentrated on the various complications and inconsistencies in the subplot of A Shrew , which had been used by Houk and Duthie as evidence for an Ur-Shrew , to argue that the reporter of A Shrew attempted to recreate the complex subplot from The Shrew but got confused; "the compiler of A Shrew while trying to follow the subplot of The Shrew gave it up as too complicated to reproduce, and fell back on love scenes in which he substituted for the maneuvers of the disguised Lucentio and Hortensio extracts from Tamburlaine and Faustus , with which the lovers woo their ladies.
After little further discussion of the issue in the s, the s saw the publication of three scholarly editions of The Shrew , all of which re-addressed the question of the relationship between the two plays; Brian Morris ' edition for the second series of the Arden Shakespeare , H.
Morris summarised the scholarly position in as one in which no clear-cut answers could be found; "unless new, external evidence comes to light, the relationship between The Shrew and A Shrew can never be decided beyond a peradventure. It will always be a balance of probabilities, shifting as new arguments and opinions are added to the scales. Nevertheless, in the present century, the movement has unquestionably been towards an acceptance of the Bad Quarto theory, and this can now be accepted as at least the current orthodoxy.
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Miller agrees with most modern scholars that A Shrew is derived from The Shrew , but he does not believe it to be a bad quarto. Instead, he argues it is an adaptation by someone other than Shakespeare. In The Shrew , after the wedding, Gremio expresses doubts as to whether or not Petruchio will be able to tame Katherina. As Gremio does have a counterpart in I Suppositi , Miller concludes that "to argue the priority of A Shrew in this case would mean arguing that Shakespeare took the negative hints from the speeches of Polidor and Phylema and gave them to a character he resurrected from Supposes.
This is a less economical argument than to suggest that the compiler of A Shrew , dismissing Gremio, simply shared his doubts among the characters available. For him, adaptation includes exact quotation, imitation and incorporation of his own additions. This seems to define his personal style, and his aim seems to be to produce his own version, presumably intended that it should be tuned more towards the popular era than The Shrew.
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As had Alexander, Houk and Duthie, Miller believes the key to the debate is to be found in the subplot, as it is here where the two plays differ most. He points out that the subplot in The Shrew is based on "the classical style of Latin comedy with an intricate plot involving deception, often kept in motion by a comic servant.
He points to the fact that in The Shrew , there is only eleven lines of romance between Lucentio and Bianca, but in A Shrew , there is an entire scene between Kate's two sisters and their lovers. This, he argues, is evidence of an adaptation rather than a faulty report;.
The Shrew is long and complicated. It has three plots, the subplots being in the swift Latin or Italianate style with several disguises.
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Its language is at first stuffed with difficult Italian quotations, but its dialogue must often sound plain when compared to Marlowe's thunder or Greene's romance, the mouth-filling lines and images that on other afternoons were drawing crowds. An adapter might well have seen his role as that of a 'play doctor' improving The Shrew — while cutting it — by stuffing it with the sort of material currently in demand in popular romantic comedies.
Miller believes the compiler "appears to have wished to make the play shorter, more of a romantic comedy full of wooing and glamorous rhetoric , and to add more obvious, broad comedy. Oliver argues the version of the play in the First Folio was likely copied not from a prompt book or transcript, but from the author's own foul papers , which he believes showed signs of revision by Shakespeare. When Shakespeare rewrote the play so that Hortensio became a suitor in disguise Litio , many of his lines were either omitted or given to Tranio disguised as Lucentio.
Oliver cites several scenes in the play where Hortensio or his absence causes problems. For example, in Act 2, Scene 1, Tranio as Lucentio and Gremio bid for Bianca, but Hortensio, who everyone is aware is also a suitor, is never mentioned. In Act 3, Scene 2, Tranio suddenly becomes an old friend of Petruchio, knowing his mannerisms and explaining his tardiness prior to the wedding. However, up to this point, Petruchio's only acquaintance in Padua has been Hortensio. However, as far as Hortensio should be concerned, Lucentio has denounced Bianca, because in Act 4, Scene 2, Tranio disguised as Lucentio agreed with Hortensio that neither of them would pursue Bianca, and as such, his knowledge of the marriage of who he supposes to be Lucentio and Bianca makes no sense.
From this, Oliver concludes that an original version of the play existed in which Hortensio was simply a friend of Petruchio's, and had no involvement in the Bianca subplot, but wishing to complicate things, Shakespeare rewrote the play, introducing the Litio disguise, and giving some of Hortensio's discarded lines to Tranio, but not fully correcting everything to fit the presence of a new suitor. This is important in Duthie's theory of an Ur-Shrew insofar as he argues it is the original version of The Shrew upon which A Shrew is based, not the version which appears in the First Folio.
The Taming of the Shrew (peça teatral)
Upon returning to London, they published A Shrew in , some time after which Shakespeare rewrote his original play into the form seen in the First Folio. Duthie's arguments were never fully accepted at the time, as critics tended to look on the relationship between the two plays as an either-or situation; A Shrew is either a reported text or an early draft. The Taming of the Shrew has been the subject of critical controversy.
Dana Aspinall writes "Since its first appearance, some time between and , Shrew has elicited a panoply of heartily supportive, ethically uneasy, or altogether disgusted responses to its rough-and-tumble treatment of the 'taming' of the 'curst shrew' Katherina, and obviously, of all potentially unruly wives. Do we simply add our voices to those of critical disapproval, seeing Shrew as at best an 'early Shakespeare', the socially provocative effort of a dramatist who was learning to flex his muscles?
Or as an item of social archaeology that we have long ago abandoned? Or do we 'rescue' it from offensive male smugness? Or make an appeal to the slippery category of ' irony '? Some scholars argue that even in Shakespeare's day the play must have been controversial, due to the changing nature of gender politics.
Hibbard argues that during the period in which the play was written, arranged marriages were beginning to give way to newer, more romantically informed unions, and thus people's views on women's position in society, and their relationships with men, were in a state of flux.
As such, audiences may not have been as predisposed to tolerate the harsh treatment of Katherina as is often thought. Evidence of at least some initial societal discomfort with The Shrew is, perhaps, to be found in the fact that John Fletcher , Shakespeare's successor as house playwright for the King's Men , wrote The Woman's Prize , or The Tamer Tamed as a sequel to Shakespeare's play. Written c. In a mirror of the original, his new wife attempts successfully to tame him — thus the tamer becomes the tamed. Although Fletcher's sequel is often downplayed as merely a farce, some critics acknowledge the more serious implications of such a reaction.
Lynda Boose, for example, writes, "Fletcher's response may in itself reflect the kind of discomfort that Shrew has characteristically provoked in men and why its many revisions since have repeatedly contrived ways of softening the edges. With the rise of the feminist movement in the twentieth century, reactions to the play have tended to become more divergent. For some critics, "Kate's taming was no longer as funny as it had been [ Marcus very much believes the play to be what it seems. She argues A Shrew is an earlier version of The Shrew , but acknowledges that most scholars reject the idea that A Shrew was written by Shakespeare.