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The results showed that the most important cause of urbanisation and counter-urbanisation was net migration rather than natural urban population growth or decline.

International Journal of Population Research

Although natural urban population growth was roughly twice that of net migration, this had very little influence on urbanisation because it was matched by the natural growth of the rural population. Specifically, between and Zambia experienced counter-urbanisation, even though the urban population increased substantially in absolute terms.

Rural - Urban Migration - People and Migration - Social Science - Class 10

The main reason for this counter-urbanisation was some migration from urban to rural areas. This might seem counter-intuitive but this is true because the level of urbanisation is calculated as the proportion of the population living in urban areas. Therefore, since the natural growth of the rural population more or less matched the growth of the urban population, it had little effect on the urban proportion of the population.

The relatively small numbers of migrants who left urban areas was therefore enough to result in counter-urbanisation.


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Between and , Zambia experienced a rise in urbanisation. Again, the natural growth of both rural and urban populations was much more than net migration, with the result that it was the number of migrants to urban areas that tipped the balance between the urban and rural proportions of the population. We therefore conclude that, in the case of Zambia over the period to , our results show that migration contributed more to urbanisation and counter-urbanisation than did the natural growth of the urban population. We also addressed the theory that urban economic growth can cause urbanisation through migration from rural to urban areas, and that urban economic decline can result in urban to rural migration.

Human migration

Our results indicate that economic decline during the s resulted in decreased urban employment and a dramatic rise in urban unemployment, which in turn caused migration from urban to rural areas. Conversely, during the s, absolute employment grew and unemployment decreased, which corresponded with increased rural-urban migration resulting in net urbanisation.

Our findings also show that even during the period of net out-migration from urban areas and high urban unemployment levels, the resident urban-born workforce continued to grow strongly through natural increase.


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Thus, these results also show that urban population growth can increase substantially in the absence of urban economic growth, thereby increasing urban unemployment and urban-rural migration. The first phase focuses on increasing supply potential, combining infrastructure investment which mainly impacts productivity for example.

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This prepares producers for a second phase focusing on increasing demand as well as productivity, through labour-based infrastructure investment. Financing increased infrastructure investment is crucial.

The report calls for donors to fulfil their commitments on the quality of aid as well as its quantity. Furthermore, it proposes an increase in the target for aid to LDCs to a level reflecting their share of global needs to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, which it puts at 0. If donors did this while simultaneously raising total official development assistance up to the 0. The dotted line shows the increase that would be needed to achieve Sustainable Development Goal target 1.

The first two sets of columns show the annual increase in the number of people in rural areas of LDCs with access to water, electricity and sanitation during the 10 years before the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals in , and from then until the latest available data in The final set of columns shows the annual increase that would be needed from now until if the Sustainable Development Goal targets of universal access to water, electricity and sanitation by are to be achieved, based on United Nations population projections.

rural urban migration a necessity to survive Manual

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