Art tried to disarrange established semantic systems to deny teleology, by creating and exploring marginal zones and thresholds. The construction of these imaginary windows represents a kind of transcendental framing, which operates on a given empirical object and creates its auratic force in the process of perception. The moi profond operates in the depths of the personality and can only be found in single moments of highly intimate encounters. Literature is the only place to open up the view to the vie pure , which exceeds habit and intelligence.
Thus, the object provides the subject with a window-like vision into the past, which can be read as an act of self- re construction and disempowers even death. The thresholded mind cannot proceed teleologically and it attempts to reach redemption by constructing an artificial hereafter. Writing is designated a substitutive religious act that endeavours to find the spiritual equivalent of Time regained. These patterns work as the empirical impulse for remembrance. The rather objective concepts of volume , essence or chose are complemented by notions that favor Temps as a dynamic entity — similar to a melody — or as purified life vie pure.
Time in its essence cannot be objectivated except in quasi-dead ritual eternity, which merely reproduces the past but is unable to effect its vital resurrection, as Proust illustrates, e. Liminality is to be regarded as a rhetorical milieu where reality is stripped of its literal meaning in order to open up a view of new areas of figurative meaning.
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It ambiguates at least two concepts of time. Thus, a tension is created that cannot be dissolved by reason. The effect is the arising of a semantic drive between the two concepts, which activates the zone between as a third entity. The additional entity on the semantic threshold between the two concepts represents the quasi-transcendental sphere of otherness that is atmosphere. The text constitutes the reality of remembrance, which works associatively and not logically.
Thus, different times and events are interwoven in dense syntactic structures. This disproportion creates a deep discrepancy in terms of the traditional mimetic balance between narrated time and narrative time. The ironic code is closely interlocked with the emerging of the Time-atmosphere that is elicited by the syntactical structure of the sentence.
The complex syntax works on an epistemological level for the reader. It remains unclear to the reader when this happens. By using suspension and syntactical complication strategies, Proust manages to negate the evoked literal time-concept with another one. As a result, the capacity of the reader to remember the given information is blocked and he starts forgetting. The different concepts of time work together to create the impression of a blurred chronological background.
Madame Sazerat seems to be located in a dream-like transcendental sphere, which inevitably heightens her significance. She is styled as the incarnation of her own time period in Combray. The exact drawing of the temporal circumstances suggests that an extraordinary object is to be revealed at the finale. The reader is made curious as to what the window of Time will finally expose, as the narrator has so carefully constructed the frame.
The great expectation, however, is also the great deception. Is the creation of the atmospheric Time-figure Madame Sazerat affected by its ironic de-figuration? The window articulates the attempt to compensate for the existential loss of spirituality in periods of transition when life, mentality and social structure are gravely involved in the changes of modernity in its different phases.
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The window is used as a compensative device to regain the lost object of spirituality. Reality shall be coded with a transcendental value by drawing a frame. This frame is identified mostly with the auratic field of a single object, but it can also be constructed using rhetorical means and is then opened between the words on an implicit semantic level. He has experienced, first hand, the loss of the spirit of nature due to the ongoing process of industrialization. His object-poem An einem Wintermorgen, vor Sonnenaufgang illustrates the intimate union between the speaker and the dawn, which enables the speaker to receive an interior vision.
However, this suggestive literal meaning of joy, sunshine and heaven is opened, window-like, to the figural meaning of disillusionment and existential fight for the sense of self, which can no longer be achieved. The fulfilled past seems to be treasured in objects that restore their figural semantics to the subject and, by this, allow the subject a vision into its own paradise of childhood and youth.
This vision effects a quasi-resurrection on the conditions of immanence. As this resurrection cannot be figured other than in literature, Time is represented as a rhetorical phenomenon that regains its vitality in the atmospheric moments of the written text, opening the text, window-like, to the sphere of Time regained. The symbol completely unifies the divine and the sensual and provides a cradle-like device of re-ligion in its etymological sense embedding the subject in the whole of the cosmos.
Aufbruch zur Moderne. Second edition. Dry number and rigid measure bound it with iron chains. Laws reigned. On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century. The section The Loss of theOobject also appears in my unpublished study. Structure and Anti-structure. Von den Trobadors zum Surrealismus.
Sein Leben und Werk. Seventh edition. Zur deutschen Literatur. A-t-il lieu. It is spread out continually from the large to the small time-unit week, noon, single moment.
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But Combray remains unidentifiable because another time-area time-level 2 is introduced by a further syntactical level. Helga Thalhofer describes the oscillation of the ideology of art between its substantiation and its ironization. During her studies, she worked as assistant teacher for German in Rennes. She obtained a MA in and worked as freelance author in the publishing and cultural sector until She is actually working on the publication of her thesis and has a teaching assignment in French literature at the University of Munich.
Her research focuses on eighteenth and early nineteenth century French and English literature and culture. Other interests include autobiographical writing and exile, Marguerite Yourcenar and Marguerite Duras.
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Contents - Previous document - Next document. Alexandra Schamel. Outline Introduction. Full text PDF Send by e-mail. Structure and See also Kluckert, E Figural Language in Rou It is spread out continually from th Top of page. By this author Allegory as imaginary past: transcendence and acting subject in Proust's Recherche [Full text]. Browse Index Authors Keywords. Follow us. Striking it lucky in the same year with Vicomtesse Milhau who needed a tutor for her daughter, Apollinaire was whisked off to Germany and discovered the Rhineland at the same time as initiating an affair with Annie Playden, English governess of the Milhau children, a relationship that was to drag on for three years.
In March he took in Prague, Vienna and Munich.
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He visited London see Hyde Park in the vain hope of persuading Annie to elope with him. During these years poems by Apollinaire appeared in various reviews and newspapers.
tolysertisimp.gq The woodcuts were by Raoul Dufy, although the poet would have preferred Picasso. He was an associate of someone who had regularly stolen other artefacts from the museum. At the same time he sincerely professed himself a dyed-in-the-wool Parisian and patriotic Frenchman precisely because he was neither Parisian nor French; like an Indian-born writer bemoaning the end of the British aristocracy, he revelled in a nostalgia for a vieille France that another side of his nature sought to modernize by any and every means, even if his rampages might result in its destruction.
On the outbreak of war in he volunteered immediately but, as a Russian citizen, encountered a barrier of red tape. The following Easter he was sent to the front at Champagne; by November he had been promoted to sub-lieutenant in the 96th regiment and had experienced the horror of the trenches.
On 17 March he suffered a head-wound from shrapnel at Berry-au-Bac and underwent a lengthy convalescence and sub-cranial surgery. Although only thirty-six himself, he had already become the idol of a group of younger men who espoused the literary avant-garde—Breton, Tzara, Reverdy and Cocteau. The poet, weakened by his illnesses, died of Spanish flu on 9 November An actual friendship between Apollinaire and Poulenc might have brought forth even greater things but, as in the case of Schubert and Goethe, we must be grateful for an inspired synthesis of words and music that personal contact could not possibly have improved.
Of the forty-two tracks on this disc all but fourteen are devoted to the poetry of Guillaume Apollinaire, a poet we have already encountered in Calligrammes on disc 2. However, these settings were so well liked by sopranos that they immediately entered the repertoire. We may be sure that this inveterate and suicidal gambler is a displaced Parisienne. It was entirely natural that Poulenc should have wanted to collaborate with this quicksilver spirit who was ruthlessly ambitious and whose talents seemed limitless.
Cocteau was everything and anything he needed to be: playwright, critic, novelist, draughtsman, stage decorator, film director, choreographer. Even in the early days we sense that what Cocteau had to offer the composer in terms of verbal inspiration was not enough. Compact Disc 4 — Fancy Songs — This is a disc for a finale, a dazzling gallimaufry of a programme with Poulenc as time-traveller and stylistic magician. The songs of Francis Poulenc—A personal memoir I experienced the coup de foudre of discovering Poulenc the song composer late in Felicity Lott and myself, fellow-students at the Royal Academy of Music, were simultaneously hooked and enraptured.
In the same year we took part in masterclasses given by Pierre Bernac at the British Institute of Recorded Sound; these were organized by the enchanting Winifred Radford, the soprano daughter of the great British bass Robert Radford. After her retirement she taught the French song class at the Guildhall School. Winifred was a lifelong friend of the great baritone, and assisted him in the translation into English of his two books.
Since then I have never wavered in my admiration for this great duo, who stand next to Pears and Britten in the performance of twentieth-century song. On a trip to Paris I stumbled across a music shop, long-since vanished, in the Rue Lamartine where I purchased second-hand scores of almost all the song collections at ten francs each, copies that serve me still. Many years later I was moved to discover that Sir Lennox Berkeley, a personal friend of Poulenc, had written approvingly about this article in his diary.